; 第四周 文件操作 | Linux运维部落

第四周 文件操作

1、复制/etc/skel目录为/home/tuser1,要求/home/tuser1及其内部文件的属组和其它用户均没有任何访问权限

[root@localhost ~]# cp -a /etc/skel /home/tuser1

[root@localhost ~]# chmod -R go= /home/tuser1

[root@localhost ~]# ls -ld /home/tuser1/

drwx——. 2 root root 4096 Nov 30 17:47 /home/tuser1/

 

[root@localhost ~]# cp -r /etc/skel /home/tuser1

[root@localhost ~]# chmod -R 700 /home/tuser1/

[root@localhost ~]# ls -ld /home/tuser1/

drwx——. 3 root root 4096 Dec 24 19:19 /home/tuser1/

 

2、编辑/etc/group文件,添加组hadoop

[root@localhost ~]# vi /etc/group

[root@localhost ~]# tail -1 /etc/group

hadoop:x:557

 

[root@localhost ~]# echo “hadoop:x:557” >> /etc/group && tail -1 /etc/group

hadoop:x:557

 

3、手动编辑/etc/passwd文件新增一行,添加用户hadoop,其基本组ID为hadoop组的id号;其家目录为/home/hadoop

[root@localhost ~]# vi /etc/passwd

[root@localhost ~]# tail -1 /etc/passwd

hadoop:x:1009:1009::/home/hadoop:/bin/bash

 

[root@localhost ~]# echo “hadoop:x:1009:1009::/home/hadoop:/bin/bash” >> /etc/passwd && tail -1 /etc/passwd

hadoop:x:1009:1009::/home/hadoop:/bin/bash

[root@localhost ~]# id hadoop

uid=1009(hadoop) gid=1009 groups=1009

 

4、复制/etc/skel目录为/home/hadoop,要求修改hadoop目录的属组和其它用户没有任何访问权限

[root@localhost ~]# cp -r /etc/skel /home/hadoop

[root@localhost ~]# chmod -R 700 /home/hadoop

[root@localhost ~]# ls -ld /home/hadoop

drwx—— 2 root root 4096 Dec 24 19:39 /home/hadoop

 

5、修改/home/hadoop目录及其内部所有文件的属主为hadoop,属组为hadoop

[root@localhost ~]# chown -R hadoop:hadoop /home/hadoop

[root@localhost ~]# ls -al /home/hadoop

total 20

drwx—— 2 hadoop hadoop 4096 Dec 24 19:39 .

drwxr-xr-x. 12 root root 4096 Dec 24 19:39 ..

-rwx—— 1 hadoop hadoop 18 Dec 24 19:39 .bash_logout

-rwx—— 1 hadoop hadoop 193 Dec 24 19:39 .bash_profile

-rwx—— 1 hadoop hadoop 231 Dec 24 19:39 .bashrc

 

6、显示/proc/meminfo文件中以大写或小写S开头的行;用两种方式

[root@localhost ~]# grep “^[sS]” /proc/meminfo

SwapCached: 0 kB

SwapTotal: 8388604 kB

SwapFree: 8388604 kB

Shmem: 6896 kB

Slab: 43572 kB

SReclaimable: 20876 kB

SUnreclaim: 22696 kB

 

[root@localhost ~]# grep -i “^s” /proc/meminfo

SwapCached: 0 kB

SwapTotal: 8388604 kB

SwapFree: 8388604 kB

Shmem: 6896 kB

Slab: 43572 kB

SReclaimable: 20876 kB

SUnreclaim: 22696 kB

 

[root@localhost ~]# grep -E “^(s|S)” /proc/meminfo

SwapCached: 0 kB

SwapTotal: 8388604 kB

SwapFree: 8388604 kB

Shmem: 6896 kB

Slab: 43572 kB

SReclaimable: 20876 kB

SUnreclaim: 22696 kB

 

7、显示/etc/passwd文件中其默认shell为非/sbin/nologin的用户

[root@localhost ~]# grep -v “/sbin/nologin$” /etc/passwd |cut -d: -f1

root

sync

shutdown

halt

gentpp

gentoo

fedora

mageia

slackware

gentnn

slack

centos

hadoop

 

[root@localhost ~]# grep -v “nologin\>$” /etc/passwd |cut -d: -f1

root

sync

shutdown

halt

gentpp

gentoo

fedora

mageia

slackware

gentnn

slack

centos

hadoop

 

8、显示/etc/passwd文件中其默认shell为/bin/bash的用户

[root@localhost ~]# grep “/bin/bash$” /etc/passwd | cut -d: -f1

root

gentoo

mageia

gentnn

centos

hadoop

 

[root@localhost ~]# grep “bash\>$” /etc/passwd | cut -d: -f1

root

gentoo

mageia

gentnn

centos

hadoop

 

9、找出/etc/passwd文件中的一位数或两位数

[root@localhost ~]# grep “\<[0-9]\{1,2\}\>” /etc/passwd

root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash

bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin

daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologin

adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/sbin/nologin

lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/sbin/nologin

sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/sync

shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown

halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt

mail:x:8:12:mail:/var/spool/mail:/sbin/nologin

operator:x:11:0:operator:/root:/sbin/nologin

games:x:12:100:games:/usr/games:/sbin/nologin

ftp:x:14:50:FTP User:/var/ftp:/sbin/nologin

nobody:x:99:99:Nobody:/:/sbin/nologin

dbus:x:81:81:System message bus:/:/sbin/nologin

postfix:x:89:89::/var/spool/postfix:/sbin/nologin

sshd:x:74:74:Privilege-separated SSH:/var/empty/sshd:/sbin/nologin

rpc:x:32:32:Rpcbind Daemon:/var/lib/rpcbind:/sbin/nologin

rpcuser:x:29:29:RPC Service User:/var/lib/nfs:/sbin/nologin

[root@localhost ~]# grep “\<[0-9]\{1,2\}\>” /etc/passwd | cut -d: -f3 | sort -n

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

11

12

14

29

32

74

81

89

99

 

10、显示/boot/grub/grub.conf中以至少一个空白字符开头的行

[root@localhost ~]# ls -ld /boot/grub

drwxr-xr-x. 2 root root 4096 Nov 30 17:49 /boot/grub

[root@localhost ~]# ls /boot/grub

splash.xpm.gz

[root@localhost ~]# ls /boot/grub2

device.map fonts grub.cfg grubenv i386-pc locale

 

[root@localhost ~]# grep “^[[:space:]]\+.*” /boot/grub2/grub.cfg | wc -l

64

 

[root@localhost ~]# grep “^[[:space:]]\+.*” /boot/grub/grub.conf

 

11、显示/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit文件中以#开头,后面跟至少一个空白字符,而后又有至少一个非空白字符的行

[root@localhost ~]# grep “^#[[:space:]]\+[^[:space:]]\+” /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit

 

12、打出netstat -tan命令执行结果中以‘LISTEN’,后或跟空白字符结尾的行

[root@localhost ~]# netstat -tan

Active Internet connections (servers and established)

Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address Foreign Address State

tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:111 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN

tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:22 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN

tcp 0 0 127.0.0.1:25 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN

tcp 0 0 192.168.43.191:22 192.168.43.233:50240 ESTABLISHED

tcp 0 52 192.168.43.191:22 192.168.43.233:51118 ESTABLISHED

tcp6 0 0 :::111 :::* LISTEN

tcp6 0 0 :::22 :::* LISTEN

tcp6 0 0 ::1:25 :::* LISTEN

[root@localhost ~]# netstat -tan | grep “LISTEN[[:space:]]*$”

tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:111 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN

tcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:22 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN

tcp 0 0 127.0.0.1:25 0.0.0.0:* LISTEN

tcp6 0 0 :::111 :::* LISTEN

tcp6 0 0 :::22 :::* LISTEN

tcp6 0 0 ::1:25 :::* LISTEN

 

13、添加用户bash, testbash, basher, nologin (此一个用户的shell为/sbin/nologin),而后找出当前系统上其用户名和默认shell相同的用户的信息

[root@localhost ~]# useradd bash

[root@localhost ~]# useradd testbash

[root@localhost ~]# useradd basher

[root@localhost ~]# useradd -s /sbin/nologin nologin

[root@localhost ~]# tail -4 /etc/passwd

bash:x:4006:4006::/home/bash:/bin/bash

testbash:x:4007:4007::/home/testbash:/bin/bash

basher:x:4008:4008::/home/basher:/bin/bash

nologin:x:4009:4009::/home/nologin:/sbin/nologin

 

[root@localhost ~]# grep -E “^([^:]+\>).*\1$” /etc/passwd

sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/sync

shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown

halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt

bash:x:4006:4006::/home/bash:/bin/bash

nologin:x:4009:4009::/home/nologin:/sbin/nologin

本文来自投稿,不代表Linux运维部落立场,如若转载,请注明出处:/90572

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  • 马哥教育
    马哥教育 2018-01-07 17:29

    赞,前面几个题目使用了至少一种方法实现,比较好~~排版上也很清晰,继续加油~

  • 马哥教育
    马哥教育 2018-01-07 17:38

    内容上没什么问题,排版上可以变化一下~~加油哈~

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