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Linux系统分区管理

管理分区

 

 

查看系统中的分区4种方式

[root@localhost ~]# ls /dev/sd* [来自内存]

[root@localhost ~]# cat /proc/partitions

[root@localhost ~]# lsblk

/dev/sda /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 /dev/sda3 /dev/sda4 /dev/sda5

 

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l 看磁盘中的分区表

磁盘中的分区表可能和内存中的分区表是不同步的

 

parted命令

  1. parted的操作都是实时生效的,小心使用
  2. 用法:parted [选项]… [设备 [命令 [参数]…]…]
  3. parted /dev/sdb mklabel gpt|msdos
  4. parted /dev/sdb print
  5. parted /dev/sdb mkpart primary 1 200 (默认M)
  6. parted /dev/sdb rm 1
  7. parted -l
  • mklabel gpt|msdos用于指定创建的是GPT分区还是MBR分区

 

  • 创建分区

[root@localhost app]# parted /dev/sdb mkpart primary 1 1000

Information: You may need to update /etc/fstab.

 

[root@localhost app]# lsblk

NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT

sda 8:0 0 200G 0 disk

├─sda1 8:1 0 1G 0 part /boot

├─sda2 8:2 0 50G 0 part /

├─sda3 8:3 0 20G 0 part /app

├─sda4 8:4 0 1K 0 part

└─sda5 8:5 0 2G 0 part [SWAP]

sdb 8:16 0 20G 0 disk

└─sdb1 8:17 0 953M 0 part

GPT分区和MBR分区是互不兼容的,也不存在转换的问题,一旦设置了GPT分区或者MBR分区,要想装换只能重新分区

 

 

分区工具fdisk和gdisk

 

  1. gdisk /dev/sdb 类fdisk 的GPT分区工具
  2. fdisk -l [-u] [device…] 查看分区
  3. fdisk /dev/sdb 管理分区
  4. 子命令:
  5. p 分区列表
  6. t 更改分区类型
  7. n 创建新分区
  8. d 删除分区
  9. v 校验分区
  10. u 转换单位
  11. w 保存并退出
  12. q 不保存并退出

 

 

[root@localhost app]# gdisk /dev/sdb

GPT fdisk (gdisk) version 0.8.6

 

Partition table scan:

MBR: protective

BSD: not present

APM: not present

GPT: present

 

Found valid GPT with protective MBR; using GPT.

#gdisk的帮助信息

Command (? for help): ?

b back up GPT data to a file 备份GPT分区

c change a partition’s name 修改分区名

d delete a partition 删除分区

i show detailed information on a partition

l list known partition types

n add a new partition 添加一个新分区

o create a new empty GUID partition table (GPT) 创建一个GUID分区表

p print the partition table 打印分区表

q quit without saving changes不保存退出

r recovery and transformation options (experts only) 恢复修改的选项

s sort partitions 分区排序

t change a partition’s type code 修改分区类型代码

v verify disk 验证磁盘

w write table to disk and exit写入磁盘并且退出

x extra functionality (experts only) 扩展选项

? print this menu 打印出菜单

 

Command (? for help):

 

#把分区表转换为MBR类型

[root@localhost ~]# parted /dev/sdb mklabel msdos

Warning: The existing disk label on /dev/sdb will be destroyed and all data on this disk will be lost. Do

you want to continue?

Yes/No? yes

Information: You may need to update /etc/fstab.

 

[root@localhost ~]#

 

fdisk分区工具的使用

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb

Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.23.2).

 

Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.

Be careful before using the write command.

 

 

Command (m for help): m

Command action

a toggle a bootable flag

b edit bsd disklabel

c toggle the dos compatibility flag 不以dos兼容的模式

d delete a partition

g create a new empty GPT partition table

G create an IRIX (SGI) partition table

l list known partition types

m print this menu

n add a new partition

o create a new empty DOS partition table

p print the partition table

q quit without saving changes

s create a new empty Sun disklabel

t change a partition’s system id

u change display/entry units 以扇区为单位进行显示(单位为K)

v verify the partition table

w write table to disk and exit

x extra functionality (experts only)

 

Command (m for help):

 

在CentOS6中:

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk /dev/sda

 

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It’s strongly recommended to

switch off the mode (command ‘c’) and change display units to

sectors (command ‘u’).基于dos兼容模式是弃用。这是强烈推荐关掉模式(命令“c”)和改变显示单位部门(命令“u”)。也就是用传统的柱面的方式来划分去分区,并且要求以整柱面位单位进行划分,

 

 

Command (m for help): p

 

Disk /dev/sda: 214.7 GB, 214748364800 bytes

255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 26108 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Disk identifier: 0x0008cdd6

 

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

/dev/sda1 * 1 131 1048576 83 Linux

Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary. 默认以柱面为单位进行划分,不在整柱面上会提示

/dev/sda2 131 6658 52428800 83 Linux

/dev/sda3 6658 9269 20971520 83 Linux

/dev/sda4 9269 26109 135265280 5 Extended

/dev/sda5 9269 9530 2097152 82 Linux swap / Solaris

 

Command (m for help):

CentOS6默认以dos模式柱面为单位

CentOS7默认就是以非dos模式以扇区为单位,默认相当于已经加了c u 了,但也是可以改为以柱面为单位进行显示,例如打开的时候以柱面为单位进行显示

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -h

Usage:

fdisk [options] <disk> change partition table

fdisk [options] -l <disk> list partition table(s)

fdisk -s <partition> give partition size(s) in blocks

 

Options:

-b <size> sector size (512, 1024, 2048 or 4096)

-c[=<mode>] compatible mode: ‘dos’ or ‘nondos’ (default)

-h print this help text

-u[=<unit>] display units: ‘cylinders’ or ‘sectors’ (default)

-v print program version

-C <number> specify the number of cylinders

-H <number> specify the number of heads

-S <number> specify the number of sectors per track

 

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -u=cylinders /dev/sda

 

WARNING: cylinders as display units are deprecated. Use command ‘u’ to

change units to sectors.

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

/dev/sda1 * 1 131 1048576 83 Linux

/dev/sda5 9269 9530 2097152 82 Linux swap / Solaris

 

注意:注意不要在一个分区中的夹缝中分区,避免分出来的空间过小,或者分区的时候空间过大进行报错提示

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

/dev/sdc1 2048 8192 3072+ 83 Linux

/dev/sdc2 10240 62914559 31452160 83 Linux

Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (8193-10239, default 10239): +10G

Value out of range.

分区不能调大调小,只能重头开始分区。例如删除分区6,分区7会变成分区6。

 

分区的标识、设备名是不稳定的,带来的问题就是将来在磁盘上进行分区配置文件的修改,写/sda5 sda6这样的名字,万一删掉了分区,设备名就变了,数据就找不到了配置文件就会出问题,不推荐写设备名称,分区完成后会生成UUID号,是唯一且不变的,建议写UUID号

 

在6中创建分区表同步失败

Command (m for help): n

First sector (148899903-419430399, default 148899903):

Using default value 148899903

Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (148899903-148903935, default 148903935):

Using default value 148903935

 

Command (m for help): w

The partition table has been altered!

 

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

 

WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.

The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at

the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)

Syncing disks.

[root@localhost ~]#

 

需要手动同步分区表

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