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MySQL高可用架构之MHA

MySQL高可用架构之MHA

1、关于MHA

MHA(Master HA)是一款开源的MySQL的高可用程序,它为MySQL主从复制架构提供了automating master failover功能。MHA在监控到master节点故障时,会提升其中拥有的最新数据的slave节点成为新的master节点,在此期间,MHA会通过其它从节点获取额外信息来避免一致性方面的问题。MHA还提供了master节点的在线切换功能,即按需切换master/slave节点。

MHA服务有两种角色,MHA Manager(管理节点)和MHA Node(数据节点):

MHA Manager:通常单独部署在一台独立机器上管理多个master/slave集群,每个master/slave集群称为一个application;

MHA node:运行在每台MySQL服务器上,它通过监控具备解析和清理log功能的脚本来加快故障转移

2、MHA组件说明

Manager节点:

-masterha_check_ssh:MHA依赖的SSH环境检测工具;
-masterha_check_repl:MySQL复制环境检测工具;
-masterha_manager:MHA服务主程序;
-masterha_check_status:MHA运行状态探测工具;
-masterha_master_monitor:MySQL master节点可用性检测工具;
-masterha_master_switch:master节点切换工具;
-masterha_conf_host:添加或删除配置的节点;
-masterha_stop:关闭MHA服务的工具;

Node节点:

-save_binary_logs:保存和复制master的二进制日志;
-apply_diff_relay_logs:识别差异的中继日志事件并用于其他slave;
-fiter_mysqlbinlog:去除不必要的ROLLBACK事件(MHA已不再使用这个工具);
-purge_relay_logs:清除中继日志(不会阻塞SQL线程);

自定义扩展:

-secondary_check_script:通过多条网络路由检测master的可用性;
-master_ip_failover_script:更新appliction使用的masterip;
-shutdown_script:强制关闭master节点;
-report_script:发送报告;
-init_conf_load_script:加载初始配置参数;
-master_ip_online_change_script:更新master节点ip地址

3、部署及测试

实验拓扑:

node1:192.168.150.137   MHA manager
node2:192.168.150.138   MHA node    mariadb master
node3:192.168.150.139   MHA node    mariadb slave candidate
node4:192.168.150.140   MHA node    mariadb slave

配置过程:

1、修改每台服务器的hosts文件
/etc/hosts
127.0.0.1   localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
::1         localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6

192.168.150.137 node1.com node1
192.168.150.138 node2.com node2
192.168.150.139 node3.com node3
192.168.150.140 node4.com node4

2、node2-node4进行mariadb的yum安装
yum -y install mariadb-server

3、配置ssh互信通信环境
[root@node1 ~]# ssh-keygen -t rsa -P ''
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa): 
Created directory '/root/.ssh'.
Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
a2:f2:10:28:cd:ea:7b:d8:f4:95:15:6e:73:a6:9d:4e root@node1.com
The key's randomart image is:
+--[ RSA 2048]----+
|                 |
|         .       |
|        . .      |
| +       = o     |
|o +   . S * .    |
|.. o . + . E     |
|. * o .   o      |
|.. * .     .     |
| oo .            |
+-----------------+
[root@node1 ~]# ls .ssh/id_rsa
id_rsa      id_rsa.pub  
[root@node1 ~]# cat .ssh/id_rsa.pub > .ssh/authorized_keys
[root@node1 ~]# ssh node1
The authenticity of host 'node1 (192.168.150.137)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is 2a:e3:03:52:8c:84:02:59:a2:26:a3:b2:f6:74:6c:3c.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'node1,192.168.150.137' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
Last login: Wed Mar 29 15:06:52 2017 from 192.168.150.1
[root@node1 ~]# ll .ssh/authorized_keys 
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 396 3月  29 15:35 .ssh/authorized_keys
[root@node1 ~]# chmod go= .ssh/authorized_keys 
[root@node1 ~]# scp -p .ssh/id_rsa .ssh/authorized_keys node2:/root/.ssh
root@node2's password: 
id_rsa                                                  100% 1675     1.6KB/s   00:00    
authorized_keys                                         100%  396     0.4KB/s   00:00    
[root@node1 ~]# scp -p .ssh/id_rsa .ssh/authorized_keys node3:/root/.ssh
The authenticity of host 'node3 (192.168.150.139)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is 2a:e3:03:52:8c:84:02:59:a2:26:a3:b2:f6:74:6c:3c.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'node3,192.168.150.139' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
root@node3's password: 
id_rsa                                                  100% 1675     1.6KB/s   00:00    
authorized_keys                                         100%  396     0.4KB/s   00:00    
[root@node1 ~]# scp -p .ssh/id_rsa .ssh/authorized_keys node4:/root/.ssh
root@node4's password: 
Permission denied, please try again.
root@node4's password: 
id_rsa                                                  100% 1675     1.6KB/s   00:00    
authorized_keys                                         100%  396     0.4KB/s   00:00    
[root@node1 ~]# ssh node2
Last login: Wed Mar 29 15:07:05 2017 from 192.168.150.1
[root@node2 ~]# exit
登出
Connection to node2 closed.
[root@node1 ~]# ssh node3
Last login: Wed Mar 29 15:07:18 2017 from 192.168.150.1
[root@node3 ~]# exit
登出
Connection to node3 closed.
[root@node1 ~]# ssh node3
Last login: Wed Mar 29 15:40:05 2017 from node1.com
[root@node3 ~]# exit
登出
Connection to node3 closed.
[root@node1 ~]# ssh node4
Last failed login: Wed Mar 29 15:39:53 CST 2017 from node1.com on ssh:notty
There was 1 failed login attempt since the last successful login.
Last login: Wed Mar 29 15:39:30 2017 from node1.com
[root@node4 ~]# exit
登出
Connection to node4 closed.
[root@node1 ~]# ssh node4
Last login: Wed Mar 29 15:40:13 2017 from node1.com
[root@node4 ~]# exit
登出
Connection to node4 closed.


4、修改mysql参数
master:
[mysqld]
innodb_file_per_table = 1
skip_name_resolve = 1
log-bin = master-bin
relay-log = relay-bin
server_id = 1

slave:
[mysqld]
innode_file_per_table = 1
skip_name_resolve = 1
log-bin = master-bin
relay-log = relay-bin
server_id = 2
read_only = 1
relay_log_purge = 0

5、主库开启并创建授权账号
master:
MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW MASTER STATUS;
+-------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
| File              | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
+-------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
| master-bin.000003 |      245 |              |                  |
+-------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE,REPLICATION CLIENT ON *.* TO 'repluser'@'192.168.%.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'replpass';

MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'mhauser'@'192.168.%.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'mhapass';  #此为mha的管理账号

MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW GLOBAL VARIABLES LIKE 'read_only';   #此时主库是可写可读
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| read_only     | OFF   |
+---------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)


6、从库进行主从功能开启 node3、node4操作相同
[root@node3 ~]# mysql
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 2
Server version: 5.5.52-MariaDB MariaDB Server

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='192.168.150.138',MASTER_USER='repluser',MSTER_PASSWORD='replpass',MASTER_LOG_FILE='master-bin.000003',MASTER_LOG_POS=245;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: 
                  Master_Host: 192.168.150.138
                  Master_User: repluser
                  Master_Port: 3306
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: master-bin.000003
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 245
               Relay_Log_File: relay-bin.000001
                Relay_Log_Pos: 4
        Relay_Master_Log_File: master-bin.000003
             Slave_IO_Running: No
            Slave_SQL_Running: No
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 245
              Relay_Log_Space: 245
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: NULL
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error: 
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 0
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> START SLAVE;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                  Master_Host: 192.168.150.138
                  Master_User: repluser
                  Master_Port: 3306
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: master-bin.000003
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 497
               Relay_Log_File: relay-bin.000002
                Relay_Log_Pos: 782
        Relay_Master_Log_File: master-bin.000003
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 497
              Relay_Log_Space: 1070
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error: 
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 1
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW GLOBAL VARIABLES LIKE 'read_only';   #此时从库是只读模式
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| read_only     | ON    |
+---------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)



7、此时一主两从架构已经配置完成,安装MHA包
manager节点(node1):
安装mha4mysql-manager-0.56-0.el6.noarch.rpm和mha4mysql-node-0.56-0.el6.noarch.rpm
yum install mha4mysql* -y

node节点(node2-node4):
安装mha4mysql-node-0.56-0.el6.noarch.rpm
yum -y iinstall mha4mysql-node-0.56-0.el6.noarch.rpm

8、初始化MHA
创建配置目录及配置文件(在node1上执行)
[root@node1 ~]# mkdir /etc/masterha
[root@node1 ~]# vim /etc/masterha/app1.cnf 
[server default]
user=mhauser
password=mhapass
manager_workdir=/data/masterha/app1
master_log=/data/masterha/app1/manager.log
remote_workdir=/data/masterha/app1
ssh_user=root
repl_user=repluser
repl_password=replpass
ping_interval=1

[server1]
hostname=192.168.150.138
candidate_master=1

[server2]
hostname=192.168.150.139
candidate_master=1

[server3]
hostname=192.168.150.140

9、启动前检测
ssh互信配置是否OK
[root@node1 ~]# masterha_check_ssh --conf=/etc/masterha/app1.cnf
......
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.150.139' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
Wed Mar 29 17:03:03 2017 - [debug]   ok.
Wed Mar 29 17:03:03 2017 - [info] All SSH connection tests passed successfully.

mysql复制集群的连接配置是否OK
[root@node1 ~]# masterha_check_repl --conf=/etc/masterha/app1.cnf
......
Wed Mar 29 17:04:40 2017 - [info] 
192.168.150.138(192.168.150.138:3306) (current master)
 +--192.168.150.139(192.168.150.139:3306)
 +--192.168.150.140(192.168.150.140:3306)

Wed Mar 29 17:04:40 2017 - [info] Checking replication health on 192.168.150.139..
Wed Mar 29 17:04:40 2017 - [info]  ok.
Wed Mar 29 17:04:40 2017 - [info] Checking replication health on 192.168.150.140..
Wed Mar 29 17:04:40 2017 - [info]  ok.
Wed Mar 29 17:04:40 2017 - [warning] master_ip_failover_script is not defined.
Wed Mar 29 17:04:40 2017 - [warning] shutdown_script is not defined.
Wed Mar 29 17:04:40 2017 - [info] Got exit code 0 (Not master dead).

MySQL Replication Health is OK.

10、启动MHA
[root@node1 ~]# nohup masterha_manager --conf=/etc/masterha/app1.cnf > /data/masterha/app1/manager.log 2>&
1 &[1] 16989

[root@node1 ~]# tail -f /data/masterha/app1/manager.log 
192.168.150.138(192.168.150.138:3306) (current master)
 +--192.168.150.139(192.168.150.139:3306)
 +--192.168.150.140(192.168.150.140:3306)

Wed Mar 29 21:51:58 2017 - [warning] master_ip_failover_script is not defined.
Wed Mar 29 21:51:58 2017 - [warning] shutdown_script is not defined.
Wed Mar 29 21:51:58 2017 - [info] Set master ping interval 1 seconds.
Wed Mar 29 21:51:58 2017 - [warning] secondary_check_script is not defined. It is highly recommended setti
ng it to check master reachability from two or more routes.Wed Mar 29 21:51:58 2017 - [info] Starting ping health check on 192.168.150.138(192.168.150.138:3306)..
Wed Mar 29 21:51:58 2017 - [info] Ping(SELECT) succeeded, waiting until MySQL doesn't respond..



11、启动后查看master节点状态
[root@node1 ~]# masterha_check_status --conf=/etc/masterha/app1.cnf
app1 (pid:16623) is running(0:PING_OK), master:192.168.150.138


12、进行故障转移测试
(1)maser节点关闭mariadb
[root@node2 ~]# killall mysqld mysqld_safe

(2)此时在manager上可以看到转移的日志
----- Failover Report -----

app1: MySQL Master failover 192.168.150.138(192.168.150.138:3306) to 192.168.150.139(192.168.150.139:3306)
 succeeded
Master 192.168.150.138(192.168.150.138:3306) is down!

Check MHA Manager logs at node1.com:/data/masterha/app1/manager.log for details.

Started automated(non-interactive) failover.
The latest slave 192.168.150.139(192.168.150.139:3306) has all relay logs for recovery.
Selected 192.168.150.139(192.168.150.139:3306) as a new master.
192.168.150.139(192.168.150.139:3306): OK: Applying all logs succeeded.
192.168.150.140(192.168.150.140:3306): This host has the latest relay log events.
Generating relay diff files from the latest slave succeeded.
192.168.150.140(192.168.150.140:3306): OK: Applying all logs succeeded. Slave started, replicating from 19
2.168.150.139(192.168.150.139:3306)192.168.150.139(192.168.150.139:3306): Resetting slave info succeeded.
Master failover to 192.168.150.139(192.168.150.139:3306) completed successfully.


故障转移后,manager会自动停止,此时查看master状态
[root@node1 ~]# masterha_check_status --conf=/etc/masterha/app1.cnf
app1 is stopped(2:NOT_RUNNING).

(3)查看其它两个库状态
node3   已成功接管master,并可读写
MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW MASTER STATUS;
+-------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
| File              | Position | Binlog_Do_DB | Binlog_Ignore_DB |
+-------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
| master-bin.000003 |      245 |              |                  |
+-------------------+----------+--------------+------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW GLOBAL VARIABLES LIKE 'read_only';
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| read_only     | OFF   |
+---------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

node4
MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                  Master_Host: 192.168.150.139
                  Master_User: repluser
                  Master_Port: 3306
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: master-bin.000003
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 245
               Relay_Log_File: relay-bin.000002
                Relay_Log_Pos: 530
        Relay_Master_Log_File: master-bin.000003
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 245
              Relay_Log_Space: 818
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error: 
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 2
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW GLOBAL VARIABLES LIKE 'read_only';
+---------------+-------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+---------------+-------+
| read_only     | ON    |
+---------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

(4)提供新的从节点已修复复制集群
master界定啊故障后,需要重新准备好一个新的MySQL节点。基于来自于master节点的备份恢复后,将其重新配置为mster的从节点即可。新加入节点IP为原master节点IP,否则还得修改appl.cnf中相应的设置,最后再次启动manager,并再次检查状态。

[root@node2 ~]# rm -rf /var/lib/mysql/*
[root@node2 ~]# vim /etc/my.cnf
添加从库两选项
read_only = 1
relay_log_purge = 0
[root@node2 ~]# systemctl start mariadb.service
[root@node2 ~]# mysql
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 2
Server version: 5.5.52-MariaDB MariaDB Server

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE,REPLICATION CLIENT ON *.* TO 'repluser'@'192.168.%.%' IDENTIFIED
 BY 'replpass';Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'mhauser'@'192.168.%.%' IDENTIFIED BY 'mhapass';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='192.168.150.139',MASTER_USER='repluser',MASTER_PASSWORD='r
eplpass',MASTER_LOG_FILE='master-bin.000003',MASTER_LOG_POS=245;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW SLAVE\G
ERROR 1064 (42000): You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MariaD
B server version for the right syntax to use near '' at line 1MariaDB [(none)]> START SLAVE;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
               Slave_IO_State: Waiting for master to send event
                  Master_Host: 192.168.150.139
                  Master_User: repluser
                  Master_Port: 3306
                Connect_Retry: 60
              Master_Log_File: master-bin.000003
          Read_Master_Log_Pos: 245
               Relay_Log_File: relay-bin.000002
                Relay_Log_Pos: 530
        Relay_Master_Log_File: master-bin.000003
             Slave_IO_Running: Yes
            Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
              Replicate_Do_DB: 
          Replicate_Ignore_DB: 
           Replicate_Do_Table: 
       Replicate_Ignore_Table: 
      Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: 
  Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: 
                   Last_Errno: 0
                   Last_Error: 
                 Skip_Counter: 0
          Exec_Master_Log_Pos: 245
              Relay_Log_Space: 818
              Until_Condition: None
               Until_Log_File: 
                Until_Log_Pos: 0
           Master_SSL_Allowed: No
           Master_SSL_CA_File: 
           Master_SSL_CA_Path: 
              Master_SSL_Cert: 
            Master_SSL_Cipher: 
               Master_SSL_Key: 
        Seconds_Behind_Master: 0
Master_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No
                Last_IO_Errno: 0
                Last_IO_Error: 
               Last_SQL_Errno: 0
               Last_SQL_Error: 
  Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: 
             Master_Server_Id: 2
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

再次开启manager查看状态,状态全部OK,主库变更为node3
[root@node1 ~]# nohup masterha_manager --conf=/etc/masterha/app1.cnf > /data/masterha/app1/manager.log 2>&1 &

[root@node1 ~]# masterha_check_status --conf=/etc/masterha/app1.cnf
app1 (pid:17229) is running(0:PING_OK), master:192.168.150.139

补充:

提供额外机制,防止对master的监控做出误判、VIP添加、在进行故障转移时对原有master节点执行STONITH操作避免脑裂,可通过shutdown_scrip实现、必要时,进行在线master节点转换;

原创文章,作者:N23-苏州-void,如若转载,请注明出处:/72216

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  • 马哥教育
    马哥教育 2017-04-07 17:54

    总结得很好,请保持,加油!

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