; N25-第十一周 | Linux运维部落

N25-第十一周

1、详细描述一次加密通讯的过程,结合图示最佳。

发送者:
    1.使用单项加密算法提取生成数据的特征码
    2.使用自己的私钥加密特征码附加在数据后面
    3.生成用于对称加密的临时密钥
    4.用此临时密钥加密数据和已经使用私钥加密后的特征码
    5.使用接收方的公钥加密此临时密钥,附加在对称后的数据后方
接收方:
    1.使用自己的私钥解密的临时秘钥;从而获得对方的对称密钥
    2.使用对称密钥解密对称加密的数据和私钥加密的特征码密文;从而获得数据和特征码密文
    3.使用发送方的公钥解密特征码密文,从而获得从计算成生成的特征码
    4.使用与对方同样的单项加密算法计算特征码,并与解密而来的进行比较

2、描述创建私有CA的过程,以及为客户端发来的证书请求进行办法证书。

创建私有CA

1.生成私钥: 
    (umask 077;openssl genrsa -out /tmp/cakey.pem 4096)
2.生成自签证书;
    openssl req -new -x509 -key /etc/pki/CA/private/cakey.pem -out /etc/pki/CA/cacert.pem -days 3655
    -new    生成新证书签署请求
    -x509   生成自谦格式证书,专用于创建私有CA时
    -key    生成请求时用到的私有文件路径
    -out    生成的请求文件路径;如果自签操作将直接生成签署过的证书
    -day    证书的有效时常;                                        
3.为CA提供所需的目录及文件;
    mkdir -pv /etc/pki/CA/{certs,crl,newserts}
    touch /etc/pki/CA/{serical,index.txt}
    echo 01 > /etc/pki/CA/serical

为客户端的请求颁发证书

httpd为例
    1.用到的证书的主机生成私钥
        mkdir /etc/httpd/ssl
        cd /etc/httpd/ssl
        (umask 077;openssl genrsa -out /etc/httpd/ssl/http.key 2048)
    2.生成证书签署的请求
        openssl req -new -x509 -key /etc/httpd/ssl/http.key -out /etc/httpd/ssl/http.csr -days 365
    3.将请求通过可靠方式发送给CA主机
    4.在CA主机上签署证书;
        openssl ca -in /path/httpd.csr -out /etc/pki/CA/certs/httpd.crt -day 365
        查看证书中的信息:
        openssl x509 -in /etc/pki/CA/certs/httpd.crt -noout -serial -subject

3、描述DNS查询过程以及DNS服务器类别。

DNS查询过程:
Client –> hosts文件 –> DNS Service –> Local Cache –> DNS Server (recursion) –> Server Cache –> iteration(迭代) 
我们以www.magedu.com为例(此处有广告,你懂得)
1.客户端发起请求;
2.本机先查询本地host文件,是否有www.magedu.com和IP的对应关系;若有直接反馈,若没有则进行第二部
3.本机向指定NS1.server发起查询请求,NS1在收到请求后,查看缓存记录,是否有相关的解析记录,若有直接反馈,若没有则进行第三部;
4.NS1会主动向根域名服务器发起查询请求,但是由于根服务器只记录了.com的相关信息,则告知NS1你可以去.com查询,并告知NS1,.com的地址;
5.NS1通过.com服务器给予的回应,告知magedu.com的记录地址,但没有www.magedu.com;于是让其去magedu.com查询;
6.NS1通过向magedu.com发起请求得到www.magedu.com的IP地址并缓存下来;
7.NS1向客户端告知www.magedu.com的IP地址,解析完成

DNS服务器的类别
负责解析至少一个域:
    主名称服务器;
    辅助名称服务器;
不负责域解析:
    缓存名称服务器

4、搭建一套DNS服务器,负责解析magedu.com域名(自行设定主机名及IP)

  (1)、能够对一些主机名进行正向解析和逆向解析;
  (2)、对子域cdn.magedu.com进行子域授权,子域负责解析对应子域中的主机名;

  (3)、为了保证DNS服务系统的高可用性,请设计一套方案,并写出详细的实施过程

安装DNS包:

[root@node1 ~]# yum -y install bind*

修改配置文件

[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/named.conf
    listen-on port 53 { any; };
    dnssec-enable no;
    dnssec-validation no;

[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/named.rfc1912.zones 

zone "magedu.com" IN {
        type master;
        file "magedu.com.zone";
};

zone "31.168.192.in-addr.arpa" IN {
        type master;
        file "named.192.168.31";
};

  

配置正向,反向定义域

[root@localhost ~]# vim /var/named/magedu.com.zone
$TTL 3600
    $ORIGIN magedu.com.
@       IN      SOA      ns1.magedu.com.        nsadmin.magedu.com.     (
                2017053003
                1H
                10M
                3D
                1D )
        IN      NS      ns1
ns1     IN      A       192.168.31.100
www     IN      A       192.168.31.110
bbs     IN      A       192.168.31.110

[root@localhost ~]# vim /var/named/192.168.31.zone
$TTL 3600
    $ORIGIN  31.168.192.in-addr.arpa.
@       IN      SOA     ns1.magedu.com  nsadmin.magedu.com (
                2017053101
                1H
                10M
                3D
                12H     )
        IN      NS      ns1.magedu.com.
100     IN      PTR     ns1.magedu.com.
110     IN      PTR     www.magedu.com.
110     IN      PTR     bbs.magedu.com.

添加文件权限

[root@localhost ~]# chgrp named /var/named/magedu.com.zone 
[root@localhost ~]# chmod o= /var/named/magedu.com.zone
[root@localhost ~]# chgrp named /var/named/192.168.31.zone 
[root@localhost ~]# chmod o= /var/named/192.168.31.zone

检测语法,及区域文件测试

[root@localhost ~]# named-checkconf 
[root@localhost ~]# named-checkzone "magedu.com" /var/named/magedu.com.zone
zone magedu.com/IN: loaded serial 2017053003
OK
[root@localhost ~]# named-checkzone "31.168.192.in-addr.arpa" /var/named/named.192.168.31 
zone 31.168.192.in-addr.arpa/IN: loaded serial 2017053101
OK


[root@localhost ~]# rndc status
version: 9.9.4-RedHat-9.9.4-38.el7_3.3 <id:8f9657aa>
CPUs found: 4
worker threads: 4
UDP listeners per interface: 4
number of zones: 103
debug level: 0
xfers running: 0
xfers deferred: 0
soa queries in progress: 0
query logging is OFF
recursive clients: 0/0/1000
tcp clients: 0/100
server is up and running

测试正向解析

[root@localhost ~]# dig -t A www.magedu.com @192.168.31.100

; <<>> DiG 9.9.4-RedHat-9.9.4-38.el7_3.3 <<>> -t A www.magedu.com @192.168.31.100
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 42995
;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 2

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 4096
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;www.magedu.com.            IN  A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
www.magedu.com.     3600    IN  A   192.168.31.110

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
magedu.com.     3600    IN  NS  ns1.magedu.com.

;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
ns1.magedu.com.     3600    IN  A   192.168.31.100

;; Query time: 0 msec
;; SERVER: 192.168.31.100#53(192.168.31.100)
;; WHEN: Mon Jun 05 01:20:21 EDT 2017
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 93

测试反向解析

[root@localhost ~]# dig -x 192.168.31.110 @192.168.31.100

; <<>> DiG 9.9.4-RedHat-9.9.4-38.el7_3.3 <<>> -x 192.168.31.110 @192.168.31.100
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 38254
;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 2, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 2

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 4096
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;110.31.168.192.in-addr.arpa.   IN  PTR

;; ANSWER SECTION:
110.31.168.192.in-addr.arpa. 3600 IN    PTR bbs.magedu.com.
110.31.168.192.in-addr.arpa. 3600 IN    PTR www.magedu.com.

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
31.168.192.in-addr.arpa. 3600   IN  NS  ns1.magedu.com.

;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
ns1.magedu.com.     3600    IN  A   192.168.31.100

;; Query time: 0 msec
;; SERVER: 192.168.31.100#53(192.168.31.100)
;; WHEN: Mon Jun 05 01:35:02 EDT 2017
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 136

配置从DNS服务器

从DNS服务器配置:(其从服务器named.conf配置与主服务器相同,如dns安装包,服务启动等)

[root@localhost slaves]# vim /etc/named.rfc1912.zones 
添加
zone "magedu.com" IN {
        type slave;
        file "slaves/magedu.com.zone";
        masters { 192.168.31.100; };
};

修改主DNS服务器配置:

[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/named.rfc1912.zones
添加:
zone "magedu.com" IN {
        type master;
        file "magedu.com.zone";
        allow-transfer { 192.168.31.101; };
};


[root@localhost ~]# vim /var/named/magedu.com.zone 
添加:
        IN      NS      ns2
ns2     IN      A       192.168.31.101

重启主从DNS服务器named.service服务

从DNS服务器测试

[root@localhost slaves]# dig -t A www.magedu.com @192.168.31.101

; <<>> DiG 9.9.4-RedHat-9.9.4-38.el7_3.3 <<>> -t A www.magedu.com @192.168.31.101
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 6402
;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 2, ADDITIONAL: 3

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 4096
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;www.magedu.com.            IN  A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
www.magedu.com.     3600    IN  A   192.168.31.110

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
magedu.com.     3600    IN  NS  ns1.magedu.com.
magedu.com.     3600    IN  NS  ns2.magedu.com.

;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
ns1.magedu.com.     3600    IN  A   192.168.31.100
ns2.magedu.com.     3600    IN  A   192.168.31.101

;; Query time: 0 msec
;; SERVER: 192.168.31.101#53(192.168.31.101)
;; WHEN: Mon Jun 05 07:44:48 EDT 2017
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 127
同步文件如下:
[root@localhost slaves]# ls 
magedu.com.zone

子域授权

子域服务器安装更新包

[root@localhost ~]# yum install -y bind*

启动服务并查看状态

[root@localhost ~]# systemctl start named
[root@localhost ~]# systemctl status named
● named.service - Berkeley Internet Name Domain (DNS)
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/named.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Mon 2017-06-05 10:00:24 EDT; 10s ago
  Process: 2365 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/named -u named $OPTIONS (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
      Process: 2362 ExecStartPre=/bin/bash -c if [ ! "$DISABLE_ZONE_CHECKING" == "yes" ]; then /usr/sbin/named-checkconf -z /etc/named.conf; else echo "Checking of zone files is disabled"; fi (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 2368 (named)
   CGroup: /system.slice/named.service
           └─2368 /usr/sbin/named -u named

Jun 05 10:00:24 localhost.localdomain named[2368]: managed-keys-zone: journal file is out of date: removing journal file
Jun 05 10:00:24 localhost.localdomain named[2368]: managed-keys-zone: loaded serial 2
Jun 05 10:00:24 localhost.localdomain named[2368]: zone 0.in-addr.arpa/IN: loaded serial 0
Jun 05 10:00:24 localhost.localdomain named[2368]: zone 1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.ip6.arpa/IN: loaded serial 0
Jun 05 10:00:24 localhost.localdomain named[2368]: zone localhost/IN: loaded serial 0
Jun 05 10:00:24 localhost.localdomain named[2368]: zone localhost.localdomain/IN: loaded serial 0
Jun 05 10:00:24 localhost.localdomain named[2368]: zone 1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa/IN: loaded serial 0
Jun 05 10:00:24 localhost.localdomain named[2368]: all zones loaded
Jun 05 10:00:24 localhost.localdomain named[2368]: running
Jun 05 10:00:24 localhost.localdomain systemd[1]: Started Berkeley Internet Name Domain (DNS).

配置子域服务器授权

[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/named.conf 
    listen-on port 53 { any; };
    dnssec-enable no;
    dnssec-validation no;

[root@localhost ~]# vim /etc/named.rfc1912.zones
添加
zone "cdn.magedu.com" IN {
    type master;
    file "cdn.magedu.com.zone";
};

[root@localhost ~]# vim /var/named/cdn.magedu.com.zone 
$TTL 3600
    $ORIGIN cdn.magedu.com.
@       IN      SOA     ns1.cdn.magedu.com. nsadmin.cdn.magedu.com. (
                2017060501
                1H
                10M
                1D
                2H )
        IN      NS      ns1
ns1     IN      A       192.168.31.103
www     IN      A       192.168.31.103

添加权限

[root@localhost ~]# chgrp named /var/named/cdn.magedu.com.zone
[root@localhost ~]# chmod o= /var/named/cdn.magedu.com.zone

配置主服务器,并reload服务

[root@localhost ~]# vim /var/named/magedu.com.zone
添加
cdn     IN      NS      ns1.cdn
ns1.cdn IN      A       192.168.31.103
[root@localhost ~]# rndc reload

测试子域配置语法及验证

[root@localhost ~]# named-checkconf
[root@localhost ~]# named-checkzone cdn.magedu.com /var/named/cdn.magedu.com.zone
zone cdn.magedu.com/IN: loaded serial 2017060501
OK

[root@localhost ~]# dig -t A www.cdn.magedu.com @192.168.31.103

; <<>> DiG 9.9.4-RedHat-9.9.4-38.el7_3.3 <<>> -t A www.cdn.magedu.com @192.168.31.103
;; global options: +cmd
;; Got answer:
;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 49713
;; flags: qr aa rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 1, ADDITIONAL: 2

;; OPT PSEUDOSECTION:
; EDNS: version: 0, flags:; udp: 4096
;; QUESTION SECTION:
;www.cdn.magedu.com.        IN  A

;; ANSWER SECTION:
www.cdn.magedu.com. 3600    IN  A   192.168.31.103

;; AUTHORITY SECTION:
cdn.magedu.com.     3600    IN  NS  ns1.cdn.magedu.com.

;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
ns1.cdn.magedu.com. 3600    IN  A   192.168.31.103

;; Query time: 0 msec
;; SERVER: 192.168.31.103#53(192.168.31.103)
;; WHEN: Mon Jun 05 10:09:07 EDT 2017
;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 97

   

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